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Handling Missing Data in the Short Form–12 Health Survey (SF-12): Concordance of Real Patient Data and Data Estimated by Missing Data Imputation Procedures

  • If information on single items in the Short Form–12 health survey (SF-12) is missing, the analysis of only complete cases causes a loss of statistical power and, in case of nonrandom missing data (MD), systematic bias. This study aimed at evaluating the concordance of real patient data and data estimated by different MD imputation procedures in the items of the SF-12 assessment. For this ends, MD were examined in a sample of 1,137 orthopedic patients. Additionally, MD were simulated (a) in the subsample of orthopedic patients exhibiting no MD (n = 810; 71%) as well as (b) in a sample of 6,970 respondents representing the German general population (95.8% participants with complete data) using logistic regression modelling. Simulated MD were replaced by mean values as well as regression-, expectation-maximization- (EM-), and multiple imputation estimates. Higher age and lower education were associated with enhanced probabilities of MD. In terms of accuracy in both data sets, the EM-procedure (ICC2,1 = .33-.72) outperformed alternative estimation approaches substantially (e.g., regression imputation: ICC2,1 = .18-.48). The EM-algorithm can be recommended to estimate MD in the items of the SF-12, because it reproduces the actual patient data most accurately.

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Author:Markus A. Wirtz, Nicole Röttele, Matthias Morfeld, Elmar Brähler, Heide Glaesmer
Parent Title (English):Assessment
Publisher:SAGE Publications
Place of publication:Sage CA: Los Angeles, CA
Document Type:Article
Date of first Publication:2021/10/01
Release Date:2021/12/14
Tag:Short Form–12 health survey; expectation-maximization-procedure; health-related quality of life; imputation methods; missing data
GND Keyword:-
First Page:1785
Last Page:1798
Licence (German):License LogoCreative Commons - CC BY - Namensnennung 4.0 International